The article offers an overview of propaganda films of the Christian Democrats and the Italian Communist Party, made between 1948 and 1964. These works, up to this moment neglected by historians, in the years of the Cold War and confrontation strong in Italy between Catholics and Communists, have helped spread ideology and the different readings of reality given by the two parties. The path analysis of documentaries focuses on language and propaganda aspects, mentality underlying them, representations and identity exhibited of Catholics and Communists. Furthermore, the examination of movies allows to show the dynamics of the clash between the two parties. The research is based on the methodological approach dictated by the New History, which demonstrated the validity of the use of audiovisual material for the study of the past, in particular for the analysis of mentality. Key words: documentary film; movie; propaganda; Christian Democrats; Italian Communist Party; Cold War.