The federalism has been defined in different ways by the theorists of the politics. During the XIX century, in Spain, the fulcrum was never, apparently, the worry to organize a territory but the way to guarantee the popular share, the individual autonomy and, in conclusion, the liberty. From this point of view, the federal form ended up representing a myth and a powerful mechanism of popular mobilization. For many sectors it meant the recovery of the power from the people that could practice it without laying to realize political, social and economic reforms without the intervention of middlemen neither of superior organs. The popular overflow and the threat that it implicated the “cantonalismo” ended up getting further some demo-republican from the federalism, that stayed tied up to the ghost of the social revolution. It also brought however others to sharpen and to finish up their proposals and from this the different models ches were born.