The large number of historiografical works between 1781 and 1877 has pointed out Tuscany like a relatively unitary region, coinciding with the State formed in Medici’s age. At the period of Italy’s unity it maybe was the only true regional reality. After 1877 that identity progressively lost weight and historiography didn’t show attention at that case study. In the cultural clash between manifestations of municipal pride and necessity to build a national feeling, region didn’t find attention. From second afterwar historiography shows a new attention toward Tuscany as a region, excited from the request of actual institution of the Region, as provided for Constitution. Public bodies, institutes and associations of different kind have given a new impulse to regional history: prevalently come out the achievement of a “long” civic tradion and more recent identity based on Resistance’s values.